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Pagan Path Almanac 2016 with App Welcome to the 19th edition of the PaganPath Almanac. Great improvements have been made over the years based on your input and our growing experience.  Designed for Witches, Wiccans and Pagans of all Paths, we hope you will find this an essential aid in your practice and celebrations.

This year we are offering the Almanac as a Google calendar for the first time.  You may subscribe to the Almanac to add it to your own Google Calendar, or simply view it on this page.  You may also access the PaganPath Almanac through your Google Calendar app on your phone, tablet or other device.  The traditional Printable Version is in the Exclusive Downloads area. You will see it when you log in (free and Premium Members).

If clicking on the ICAL address does not work for your device, try this:

On your computer, open Google Calendar.
On the left side, find "Other calendars" and click the down arrow .
Select Add by URL.
Enter the calendar's ICAL address in the field provided:
https://calendar.google.com/calendar/ical/fridaywyrd%40gmail.com/public/basic.ics
Click Add calendar. The calendar will appear on the left side under "Other calendars."

Sabbat Harvest Cakes use seasonal ingredients and are nutritious.

This is an excellent recipe for Samhain cakes which can be used as a part of ritual, for gatherings, or just to enjoy as a nutritious seasonal snack.  This recipe includes seasonal ingredients such as sunflower seeds and sweet potatoes.  Each cake is full of flavor as well as vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, and antioxidants.  The addition of Vitamin E boosts their nutritional content, and keeps them fresher for make-a-day ahead gathering preparations.  Apple cider, mulled cider, cranberry juice or apple juice make complementary ritual beverages with these cakes.

She changes everything she touches.This recipe makes about 24 Sabbat Cakes.  They store well in the refrigerator for up to a week, and for six months or more in the freezer.  We frequently have them for breakfast and snacks throughout the harvest season.  This is a PaganPath favorite!
 

For The Goddess 
Watery, most, earthy, nurturing, fertile, 'feminine' ingredients.
For the God 
Grain, Harvest, dry, Sun, 'masculine' ingredients.
  • 2 Eggs
  • 2 Cups Milk
  • 1 to 1½ Cups Cooked, Mashed Sweet Potatoes or Yams X
  • ½ Cup Melted Butter
  • *800 IU to 2400 IU Vitamin E Oil
  • *1200 mg to 2400 mg Lecithin Oil
  • 3 Cups Unbleached Flour
  • 1½ Cups Brown Sugar X
  • 1 Tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon Baking Powder
  • 1 teaspoon salt or sea salt
  • 1 Cup Rolled Oats
  • 1 to 1¼ Cup Sunflower Seed Meats X

Step 1: Preheat oven to 400° Fahrenheit. Spray a standard muffin tin with non-stick spray, or line with foil or paper muffin cups.For alternate baking ideas, see the "Variations" at the bottom of this page. 

Step 2: In a large bowl combine all the Goddess ingredients and blend well in a clockwise or deosil fashion. 

Step 3: In another large bowl combine all the God ingredients and blend well in a clockwise or deosil fashion.

Mixing wet Goddess ingredients into dry God ingredients

Sabbat muffin cakes being topped with sunflower seedsStep 4: Combine the God and Goddess ingredients in one bowl. Stir gently with a spatula just enough to moisten all ingredients. Do not over mix, batter will be slightly lumpy. Prior to baking, we like to sprinkle a few extra sunflower seeds on top of the muffin cakes.

 

Step 5: Pour or spoon into muffin cups, filling each cup about 2/3 full, and bake until done (About 20 to 30 minutes). Check doneness at around 20 minutes by inserting a toothpick into a center muffin (it should come out clean) or lightly touch the center of the muffins, they should spring back when done. Makes 24 to 30 standard muffin tin size cakes.

Variations: 

  • The Sabbat cakes pictured on this page were made with the standard recipe with only a few variations. We used 1 1/2 cups Sweet Potatoes and only used 1 cup Brown Sugar (to balance the sweetness of canned Sweet Potatoes). We also reduced the flour to 2 3/4 cup and added 1/4 cup toasted Wheat Germ.
  • For more fiber: Reduce Oats and Flour by ¼ Cup each. Add ½ Cup Bran Flakes.PaganPath Batty Bat
  • For less fat: Reduce Butter to 1/3 cup. Add 3 Tablespoons Apple sauce to Goddess ingredients.
  • Margarine can be used if it contains at least 50% vegetable oil, some light margarine will not work. Peanut or canola oil can be substituted for the butter.
  • Try grated carrots or mashed cooked pumpkin in place of the sweet potatoes.
  • Pour batter into a jelly roll pan or a 9 inch by 13 inch cake pan. Bake at 350° Fahrenheit until done (about 45 minutes) Cut out shapes such as crescent moons with cookie cutters. Remove cake between shapes. Frost if desired and carefully remove cut out shapes with spatula.

Notations & Help: 

  • * Optional! These ingredients can be omitted. If you do not have powdered or granulated Lecithin or Vitamin E: Pierce a Vitamin E (or lecithin) gel capsule with a pin and squeeze the contents into the bowl, or powder Vitamin E tablets with pestle and mortar. See label on Vitamin E bottle for IU measurements and on Lecithin package for mg measurements.
  • We recommend using an alum free baking powder. These are available at most health food stores and larger groceries. Look for ingredients such as calcium acid phosphate and bicarbonate of soda instead of sodium aluminum sulfate (alum). 
  • Sunflower Seed Meats You may used salted or unsalted sunflower seeds/meats.  If you use salted, omit the teaspoon of salt required in the God ingredients.
  • X Notes:  Ingredients marked with an X indicate that they are approximate measurements. When using leftover Sweet Potatoes from a previous dinner, or when mashing canned Sweet Potatoes, it is not easy to determine exactly how much you will have. Using slightly more or less of these ingredients will still yield a wonderful Sabbat cake. If you are using canned Sweet Potatoes or Yams in light syrup, we recommend reducing the sugar. For example: For a sweet cake, use the entire one and a half cups of Brown Sugar. To balance out the sweetness of the Sweet Potatoes, we normally cut back on the Brown Sugar a little and use only 1 or 1 1/3 Cups. Also, we like sunflower seed, so will often use a few more than the recipe calls for.

Frostings:

We prefer to sprinkle sunflower seeds on top of the cakes before they bake, but if you like frosting (especially for the grated carrot variation) these work well with the sabbat cake flavor.

  • Frosting 1: Soften an 8 ounce package (½ Cup) of cream cheese by allowing it to reach room temperature. Add 1/4 Cup powdered sugar and beat well. Slowly add 1 Tablespoon lemon juice or milk. Spread on cakes when they have cooled.Frosting will make these cakes change from nutritious delight to a sweet treat.
  • Frosting 2: Mix ¼ cup sour cream with 1/3 Cup powdered sugar and beat well. For a stiffer frosting add more powdered sugar, or for a semi-liquid frosting which can be drizzled over cakes, add enough lemon juice or water to bring it to the desired consistency.

The death angel and variants, along with symbols like pentagrams and hearts, are common on grave markers.

  • You will need:
  • several large sheets of thin paper: blank newsprint or standard 20lb paper works best, heavy paper or card stock will not work well.
  • tape: removable tape is nice
  • artists' charcoals: willow or pressed
  • a graveyard with interesting gravestones

There are many old cemeteries around the world with beautiful stonework and engravings. A cemetery near us has a pentacle carved in it with ornate designs surrounding it. Another one contains an unusual story in old grammar about a man who left nine children, killed his wife and ran down the road in front of our old house and slit his own throat with his pocket knife.

The flat sides of these charcoals work well for deep relief patterns.Take your paper, tape and charcoals out to the nearest cemetery. When you find a stone you like, tape the paper tightly over the area you wish to transfer. Then lightly rub the flat side of the charcoal across the paper to pick up the image.

These rubbings can be hung on walls as they are, or the edges can be torn to make them look old (cream colored paper or parchment paper is very effective this way) or they can even be framed. Interestingly, fine willow charcoals are very appropriate for this work according to the magical correspondence of the wood. Although any artists' charcoals will work, willow is often found near burial mounds in Britain and willows are associated with the cycles of life, death and rebirth. Willow is also used in rituals to commune with the dead.

Interesting designs can be found on tombstones.Be patient with this technique, it can take some practice to get the images to look the way you want. Bring plenty of paper and try to vary the pressure you put on the charcoal. Remember to hold the charcoal the long way so you use a broad flat side, not the way you would hold a pencil.

You may frame your rubbing, or make a collage of several stone rubbings on the same paper (ransom note effect!).  This is an interesting way to create your own wall art, or to commemorate a favorite person on your family tree.

Many Beltane Blessings to You!The Beltane season has that quivering anticipation, similar to Samhain.  Filled with a sense of magic and quickening, it is a time of growth and union.

There are thousands of websites to find basic information about Beltane, but experiencing the Sabbat is the best way to understand it and to be able to share it with you while the energy is present and the memory fresh in my mind.  This is a stub article with videos for Maypole dances and images of Maypoles.  Like the Samhain section of the site, the Beltane area will be expanding greatly right after May 6ths.

We are celebrating Beltane at the PaganPath Sanctuary this year with classes, a maypole, a handfasting/love ritual, bonfires, free camping, arm's reach breakfast burritos with plant identification and much more.

Many pictures will be taken at the event and utilized to complete this article.  It is much more accurate and efficient to describe a Sabbat to you while experiencing it, and the remainder of this Sabbat feature will appear after May 6th, 2014.

In the meantime, please enjoy the pictures and videos.  There are links to more Beltane information at the end of this article in the References & Resources section.  Click on any picture to enlarge.

Videos for Maypole Dances for Beltane

References & Resources

 

 

Samhain Ritual Bonfire at PaganPath Sanctuary 2012 Blessed Samhain to You!

Samhain (October 31) is also known as: Hallowmas, Halloween, New Year, Shadowfest, Martinmas, Summer's End, All Hallow Eve, Samhuin and by many other names.

The name of this Greater Sabbat is pronounced in various ways.  I've recorded some of the most common pronunciations you will encounter and you may click on them to hear the variety.

Pronunciations will vary due to geographic location, tradition and training, individual preferences and more. Generally, there is no Absolute and Correct way to pronounce a word. If you are new to the community (or just new to talking to others about it) you may wish to select the more common or popular pronunciations, those marked with ones or twos.

No matter which pronunciation you select, you are bound to be corrected at some point by someone who thinks that his or her pronunciation is the correct one. We suggest that you listen to their reasoning, compare it to what you already know, and in the end choose what works for you. Happy wording! 

Pronunciations are listed from the most commonly used to the least commonly used.

{mp3}SOWun{/mp3}{mp3}SOun{/mp3}{mp3}shavin{/mp3}{mp3}sahveen{/mp3}

Further Reading

Pronunciation Guide for Pagan, Wiccan and Witchcraft words.
Samhain Special Sabbat Pages on PaganPath.com
Wikipedia entry for Samhain

Quick Samhain Sabbat Cakes

Very quick and easy Samhain Sabbat Cakes can be lovely.A quick and easy recipe for Pagans and Witches on the go using a boxed spice cake recipe and seasonal ingredients symbolic of the harvest.  You can make a standard sheet cake in a single pan, but individual muffin cups are easier to serve and bake with more uniformity.

• 1 Spice Cake Mix one which requires water or milk in the instructions.
• Strong Infusion of Chamomile Tea (Matricaria chamomilla, German Chamomile/Camomile) 
• ½ Cup Finely Chopped Apple (pea sized pieces)
• 1 Small Grated Carrot(about ¼ Cup)

Step 1: Make a strong infusion of chamomile tea.  Use 2 teabags for every 2 ounces of very hot water and steep for at least five minutes.  Make extra to account for the amount of liquid the tea bags will absorb.  For example, if your cake mix calls for 1 1/3 cup water or milk, use 1 1/2 cup or more of water to brew your infusion.

Step 2: Prepare cake mix according to instructions. Substitute the water in the cake mix recipe for chamomile tea. After cake is mixed stir in apples and carrot. Bake according to package instructions.  Using the cupcake instructions is recommended as the additional fruit and vegetable bakes better in muffin tins than in a sheet pan.

Optional Frosting Suggestions

If you like frosting, good choices are lemon, orange or cream cheese flavors.  You can decorate each cake with icing, making symbols such as a pentagram, triquetra, apple, etc., or you can sprinkle standard frosting with colored sugar crystals.  We like to just use a little caramel syrup, which isn't as pretty, but it is wonderful and blends so well with the apple!  To go very fancy, dress them with a mound of cream cheese frosting and then drizzle on caramel syrup or minced apple pie filling, then sprinkle with toasted pecans.

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Samhain Cookies can take any shape.These cookies can be used as Sabbat "cakes" for rituals and are like a cross between shortbread and sugar cookies.  They are buttery, and not overly sweet.  They are excellent with coffee and teas, and also pair well with ciders and tisanes.  This recipe is for a rather small batch so you can taste the subtle, sweet honey flavor without using a lot of ingredients.

Cookies can be shaped like spooky fingers with almond nailsFor rituals, you can shape, mold, press or cut these cookies into a varitiety of forms such as pentacles, moons stars, spirals, etc.  Let your imagination have fun!  If you roll them into finger shaped sticks, you can use toasted almonds for fingernails, press lines in for the knuckles, and sprinkle cinnamon sugar on them to give them a "grave finger" look.
 

For the Goddess
For the God
  • 1 Egg
  • 3 1/2 Tablespoons Honey
  • ½ Cup Margarine or Butter
  • 1 Tablespoon Vanilla
  • 1 3/4 Cup Flour
  • ½ teaspoon Baking Powder
  • 1 teaspoon ground Chamomile Flowers (You can use the contents of chamomile tea bags.)

Step 1: Preheat oven to 375° Fahrenheit. Spray a cookie sheet with non-stick spray.

Step 2: In a large bowl combine all the Goddess ingredients and blend well in a clockwise or deosil fashion.

Step 3: In another large bowl combine all the God ingredients and blend well in a clockwise or deosil fashion.

Step 4: Combine the God and Goddess ingredients in one bowl and mix well.

Step 5: Roll teaspoonfuls of dough into balls. Roll balls in sugar, place on cookie sheet and flatten slightly. Press a shape into the top of cookies if desired with a pentacle pendant, cookie mold, fork, glass or other press. Runes can also be carved into cookies with a knife or pressed into the dough with toothpicks.

Step 6: Bake for about 10 minutes or until golden brown. Remove from pan and tumble in sugar again if more sweetness is desired.

Autumn LeavesVariations:

  • Step 5 Variation: Dough can also be rolled out onto a floured board 1/4 inch thick, and cut into shapes with cookie cutters. Sprinkle shapes with sugar prior to baking.
  • Colored Sugars and frostings may also be used after cookies have cooled.

Carved Turnips came before Pumpkins and can be fun.

These 35 trivia questions and answers have tidbits about things you might not know about this Sabbat.  Great for a bit of Samhain fun or Halloween games.  The answer to each question is written in white directly after the question sentence. Use your mouse to highlight the white text so you can read the answers, or scroll to the bottom and click "Next" for the answer key page.

  1. In the middle ages on Samhain and Beltane, church bells were rung and townspeople would bang on pots and pans or ring bells of their own for what purpose? To prevent Witches from flying over the village.
  2. The Romans called Halloween Pomona Day. Who or what was Pomona? A) The town where the Romans first celebrated Pomona Day B) The Goddess of fruits and gardens or C) The place in the afterlife where evil spirits dwell B) The Goddess of fruits and gardens.
  3. What date does Halloween fall on in a leap year? October 31st.
  4. This annual Samhain celebration was established in 1973 by Laura Cabot in Salem MA, and draws international crowds, media, and many copy-cat celebrations. What is this celebration called? The Witches' Ball
  5. Why weren't pumpkins carved into Jack-O-Lanterns before the 'discovery' of America? The Pumpkin is an American (New World) Vegetable
  6. Samhain is a celebration to honor ______. A) Samhain, the God of the dead B) the end of summer and harvest or C) the druidic priest who held the first Halloween service B) The end of summer and harvest.
  7. Rituals to honor the dead are often performed on Samhain. What ritual is a widower performing when he prepares a meal in silence, and sets a place at the table for a loved one who has passed away? He is performing a "Dumb Supper" or "Silent Supper"
  8. In the popular "Peanuts" cartoon by Charles Shultz, every Halloween, Charlie Brown helps his friend Linus wait for what character to appear? The Great Pumpkin
  9. Divination is frequently done on or near Samhain because it is felt that ________ is 'thin'. The veil between the worlds is thin, or the veil between the mundane and spirit worlds is thin.
  10. Doreen Valiente, respected Craft author, began her search for Old Dorothy Clutterbuck (the woman who allegedly initiated Gerald Gardner) in 1980. On Samhain of that year she and three other Witches met in a wood in southern England and called upon Clutterbuck's spirit to show a sign that she wished Valiente to succeed in her quest. What sign did they receive? The lantern at the south quarter of the circle suddenly tipped over and the glass in it broke. She also heard the voice of the deceased Gerald Gardner speaking to her.
  11. The tradition of dressing in costumes began for what purpose? A) To scare away evil spirits B) To honor the dead or C) To trick evil spirits so they would think you were one of them. A) To scare away evil spirits
  12. When was COG (Covenant of the Goddess) incorporated as a nonprofit religious organization? (date including year) Samhain, October 31, 1975
  13. If a Months begins on a Sunday, what superstitious date can you be sure the month will contain? It will always contain a Friday the 13th.
  14. A long time ago, when space was short in cemetaries in England, graves were dug up so the space could be reused. About one out of 20 of the coffins contained scratch marks on the inside. So to prevent future loved ones from being burried alive, they would be laid out on the kitchen table and the family would gather around and eat and drink to see if the person would come around. This is the origin of what modern rite? A Wake.
  15. In Ireland and Wales, it was traditional on Samhain to sit at the crossroads and listen to what for prophesies of the year to come? Listen to the wind.
  16. Running around a fairy ring nine times is traditionally supposed to assist in seeing fairies. When does superstition hold that it is dangerous to attempt this? On Samhain or Beltane, as it may supposedly offend the Fey.
  17. Like throwing salt over your left shoulder, what does superstion tell us to do if fairies pass by us on Samhain? Throw dirt from your footprint after them to force them to surrender captive humans.
  18. Who was responsible for holding a "Witch-In" in Central Park on Samhain 1970 which drew much media attention? Dr. Leo Louis Martello (although the city parks department at first would not issue a permit, Martello secured the aid of the N.Y. Civil Liberties Union) Martello later formed the Witches Anti-Defamation League.
  19. Which group celebrated what we've come to know as Halloween first? A) The Druids B) The Romans or C) The Christians A) The Druids
  20. What token is required to gain passage across the River Styx? A Coin
  21. The word Samhain (pronounced sow-ain in this example) means "end of summer" or "summer's end" and originated in what country: A) Ireland B) Finland or C) Norway A) Ireland
  22. What is the intense fear of Halloween called? Hint, it is a type of phobia. Samhainophobia (source: http://phobialist.com)
  23. Which country celebrates "The Day of the Dead" instead of Halloween? Mexico
  24. In 1921 the city of Anoka celebrated the first official city-wide observation of Halloween in the United States. What state did this take place in? Minnesota
  25. Samhain in the Northern Hemisphere for many traditions, marks which havest, the first, second or third? The third harvest.
  26. In the New World, the majority of the settlers did not celebrate Halloween or All Saints Day because they considered it a holiday belonging to what religion? Catholic (most holidays were considered immoral by the settlers)
  27. Home fires were traditionally extinquished and relit on Samhain to represent the cycles of death and rebirth, and to represent the new year, the waning of the sun and coming rebirth, etc. What fire were the home fires relit from? From the Samhain ritual or festival fires. (need fire, balefire, bon fire, sabbat fires also accepted)
  28. Apples are sacred to the Goddess Pomona (which is where pome fruits get their name) She is the Goddess of harvest and Samhain was known as Pomona day to the Romans. What 'secret' does an apple hold for Witches when cut crosswise? Cutting an apple crosswise reveals a five pointed star or pentacle.
  29. What popular Halloween game includes fruits which are sacred to the Goddess Pomona (these fruits may represent the souls of the afterlife) Name the Game.... Bobbing for Apples
  30. What vegetable is said to have been originally carved into "Jack-O-Lanterns"? Pumpkins, Turnips or Watermelons? Turnips
  31. Regarding the stories and fears of people putting poison or razor blades in candy trick-or-treat favors, these stories originated from a few isolated incidents. In these incidents the candy was given to the children by A) candy exchanges at schools B) someone in their own home or that the children knew or C) from strangers during door to door trick or treating B) Someone in their own home or that the children knew.
  32. In mid 19th Century New York, children called ragamuffins would dress in costumes and beg for pennies on what day? Thanksgiving Day
  33. In ancient Celtic society, Samhain from October 31st to November 1st was considered a time when what ceased to exist? Time
  34. Superstitions: Covering your mouth when yawning was once thought to prevent what? Evil spirits from entering your body through your mouth.
  35. Superstitions: If a black cat walks towards you it brings _____ luck. Good (If it walks away it takes the luck with it)

    Samhain Trivia Visible Answer Key


    1. In the middle ages on Samhain and Beltane, church bells were rung and townspeople would bang on pots and pans or ring bells of their own for what purpose? To prevent Witches from flying over the village.
    2. The Romans called Halloween Pomona Day. Who or what was Pomona? A) The town where the Romans first celebrated Pomona Day B) The Goddess of fruits and gardens or C) The place in the afterlife where evil spirits dwell B) The Goddess of fruits and gardens.
    3. What date does Halloween fall on in a leap year? October 31st.
    4. This annual Samhain celebration was established in 1973 by Laura Cabot in Salem MA, and draws international crowds, media, and many copy-cat celebrations. What is this celebration called? The Witches' Ball
    5. Why weren't pumpkins carved into Jack-O-Lanterns before the 'discovery' of America? The Pumpkin is an American (New World) Vegetable
    6. Samhain is a celebration to honor ______. A) Samhain, the God of the dead B) the end of summer and harvest or C) the druidic priest who held the first Halloween service B) The end of summer and harvest.
    7. Rituals to honor the dead are often performed on Samhain. What ritual is a Widower performing when he prepares a meal in silence, and sets a place at the table for a loved one who has passed away? He is performing a "Dumb Supper" or "Silent Supper"
    8. In the popular "Peanuts" cartoon by Charles Shultz, every Halloween, Charlie Brown helps his friend Linus wait for what character to appear? The Great Pumpkin
    9. Divination is frequently done on or near Samhain because it is felt that ________ is 'thin'. The veil between the worlds is thin, or the veil between the mundane and spirit worlds is thin.
    10. Doreen Valiente, respected Craft author, began her search for Old Dorothy Clutterbuck (the woman who allegedly initiated Gerald Gardner) in 1980. On Samhain of that year she and three other Witches met in a wood in southern England and called upon Clutterbuck's spirit to show a sign that she wished Valiente to succeed in her quest. What sign did they receive? The lantern at the south quarter of the circle suddenly tipped over and the glass in it broke. She also heard the voice of the deceased Gerald Gardner speaking to her.
    11. The tradition of dressing in costumes began for what purpose? A) To scare away evil spirits B) To honor the dead or C) To trick evil spirits so they would think you were one of them. A) To scare away evil spirits
    12. When was COG (Covenant of the Goddess) incorporated as a nonprofit religious organization? (date including year) Samhain, October 31, 1975
    13. If a Months begins on a Sunday, what superstitious date can you be sure the month will contain? It will always contain a Friday the 13th.
    14. A long time ago, when space was short in cemetaries in England, graves were dug up so the space could be reused. About one out of 20 of the coffins contained scratch marks on the inside. So to prevent future loved ones from being burried alive, they would be laid out on the kitchen table and the family would gather around and eat and drink to see if the person would come around. This is the origin of what modern rite? A Wake.
    15. In Ireland and Wales, it was traditional on Samhain to sit at the crossroads and listen to what for prophesies of the year to come? Listen to the wind.
    16. Running around a fairy ring nine times is traditionally supposed to assist in seeing fairies. When does superstition hold that it is dangerous to attempt this? On Samhain or Beltane, as it may supposedly offend the Fey.
    17. Like throwing salt over your left shoulder, what does superstion tell us to do if fairies pass by us on Samhain? Throw dirt from your footprint after them to force them to surrender captive humans.
    18. Who was responsible for holding a "Witch-In" in Central Park on Samhain 1970 which drew much media attention? Dr. Leo Louis Martello (although the city parks department at first would not issue a permit, Martello secured the aid of the N.Y. Civil Liberties Union) Martello later formed the Witches Anti-Defamation League.
    19. Which group celebrated what we've come to know as Halloween first? A) The Druids B) The Romans or C) The Christians A) The Druids
    20. What token is required to gain passage across the River Styx? A Coin
    21. The word Samhain (pronounced sow-ain in this example) means "end of summer" or "summer's end" and originated in what country: A) Ireland B) Finland or C) Norway A) Ireland
    22. What is the intense fear of Halloween called? Hint, it is a type of phobia. Samhainophobia (source: http://phobialist.com)
    23. Which country celebrates "The Day of the Dead" instead of Halloween? Mexico
    24. In 1921 the city of Anoka celebrated the first official city-wide observation of Halloween in the United States. What state did this take place in? Minnesota
    25. Samhain in the Northern Hemisphere for many traditions, marks which havest, the first, second or third? The third harvest.
    26. In the New World, the majority of the settlers did not celebrate Halloween or All Saints Day because they considered it a holiday belonging to what religion? Catholic (most holidays were considered immoral by the settlers)
    27. Home fires were traditionally extinquished and relit on Samhain to represent the cycles of death and rebirth, and to represent the new year, the waning of the sun and coming rebirth, etc. What fire were the home fires relit from? From the Samhain ritual or festival fires. (need fire, balefire, bon fire, sabbat fires also accepted)
    28. Apples are sacred to the Goddess Pomona (which is where pome fruits get their name) She is the Goddess of harvest and Samhain was known as Pomona day to the Romans. What 'secret' does an apple hold for Witches when cut crosswise? Cutting an apple crosswise reveals a five pointed star or pentacle.
    29. What popular Halloween game includes fruits which are sacred to the Goddess Pomona (these fruits may represent the souls of the afterlife) Name the Game.... Bobbing for Apples
    30. What vegetable is said to have been originally carved into "Jack-O-Lanterns"? Pumpkins, Turnips or Watermelons? Turnips
    31. Regarding the stories and fears of people putting poison or razor blades in candy trick-or-treat favors, these stories originated from a few isolated incidents. In these incidents the candy was given to the children by A) candy exchanges at schools B) someone in their own home or that the children knew or C) from strangers during door to door trick or treating B) Someone in their own home or that the children knew.
    32. In mid 19th Century New York, children called ragamuffins would dress in costumes and beg for pennies on what day? Thanksgiving Day
    33. In ancient Celtic society, Samhain from October 31st to November 1st was considered a time when what ceased to exist? Time
    34. Superstitions: Covering your mouth when yawning was once thought to prevent what? Evil spirits from entering your body through your mouth.
    35. Superstitions: If a black cat walks towards you it brings _____ luck. Good (If it walks away it takes the luck with it)

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